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Updated: December 28, 2000

N A N O P R O B E S     E - N E W S

Vol. 1, No. 2          December 28, 2000


This monthly newsletter is keep you informed about techniques to improve your immunogold labeling, highlight interesting articles and novel metal nanoparticle applications, and answer your questions. We hope you enjoy it and find it useful.

Have questions, or issues you would like to see addressed in the next issue? Let us know by e-mailing [email protected].

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Technical Help with Immunogold Labeling and Autometallography

If you have questions about gold labeling or silver enhancement, or need a solution for a problem, there's a good chance you can find the answer in our technical help pages. We have advice for obtaining the highest labeling, how to get the reagents to dissolve better, and how to optimize your gold labeling and silver enhancement to remove background problems. For more detailed information about how Nanogold and undecagold labeling works, check out our Guide to Gold Cluster Labeling.

Technical help index for Nanoprobes products: www.nanoprobes.com/Tech.html
Nanogold Labeling reagents: www.nanoprobes.com/TechNGlr.html
Technical help with silver enhancement: www.nanoprobes.com/TechSE.html
Guide to Gold Cluster Labeling: www.nanoprobes.com/LGuide.html

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Literature Reviews on Nanogold® and its Uses

For references and descriptions of protocols that our users have developed with Nanogold, check our review articles in the Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry (Hainfeld, J. F., and Powell, R. D.: J. Histochem. Cytochem., 48, 471-480 (2000)), or Cell Vision (Hainfeld, J. F., and Powell, R. D.: Cell Vision, 4, 408-432 (1997)). E-mail us ([email protected]) if you would like a copy of the Cell Vision paper.

Abstract - J. Histochem. Cytochem.: http://www.jhc.org/cgi/content/abstract/48/4/471

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Gold Lipids: Localize and Track your Liposomal Formulations

Nanogold-labeled lipids are a unique probe from Nanoprobes, containing the 1.4 nm Nanogold cluster linked to palmitoyl or dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine moieties. By incorporating these compounds into liposomal preparations, you can make gold-labeled liposomes, and use them to localize and track drugs or other encapsulated agents in biological systems. For an example showing how this method was used to follow the delivery of an anti-fungal drug, see Adler-Moore, Bone Marrow Transplantation, 14, S3-S7 (1994)). Read more:

Our MSA paper: www.nanoprobes.com/MSA96lip.html
Our paper (Hainfeld, J. F., et al: Metallosomes. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 152-160 (1999). Abstract: http://www.idealibrary.com/links/artid/jsbi.1999.4145/production
About Gold Lipids: www.nanoprobes.com/GoldLip.html
Complete list of references: www.nanoprobes.com/RefLip.html

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Label Peptides Directly with Nanogold® Labeling Reagents

In our special report, we describe three investigators who used peptides as short as 11 amino acids to study cellular features and processes. Use Monomaleimido Nanogold to label peptides with cysteine residues, or Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold to label any peptide at the N-terminal amine. Read the special report on our web site (www.nanoprobes.com/Peptide.html)

More on Nanogold labeling reagents: www.nanoprobes.com/LabRgts.html
Refernces for Nanogold Labeling reagents: www.nanoprobes.com/Refnglr.html
Monomaleimido Nanogold protocols: www.nanoprobes.com/Inf2020.html
Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold protocols: www.nanoprobes.com/Inf2025.html

If you would like to try these reagents on a small scale first, you can purchase individual 6 nmol vials for $ 90.

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...And you can even label DNA directly, too

If you can incorporate a reactive group, such as a thiol or an amine, during oligonucleotide synthesis, you can label the functionalized oligonucleotide with Nanogold labeling reagents in the same manner as an antibody or protein. See how the process works in Alivisatos et al., Nature, 382, p. 609 (1996).

Alternative strategies for DNA labeling:
www.nanoprobes.com/TechNGlr.html#DNA

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Negative Staining: Visualize Nanogold® better with NanoVan and Nano-W

If you usually use uranyl acetate as a negative stain, you might be interested in usingone of our lighter stains in specimens labeled with Nanogold or other smaller gold particles. NanoVan is based on vanadium, and therefore gives a highly uniform but much less electron-dense staining against which the Nanogold particles are easily visualized. Furthermore, by mixing with our tungsten-based negative stain, Nano-W, you can "tune" the opacity to suit your application. For an example of NanoVan in use, see Gregori, L., et al.; J. Biol. Chem., 272, 58-62 (1997)

Reprint (pdf): http://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/272/1/58.pdf
Our paper from M & M 94: www.nanoprobes.com/MSANV.html
Catalog Info and details: www.nanoprobes.com/Nstain.html

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Other Recent Papers

Hyesung Jeon and G. Graham Shipley used Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold to determine the structure of vesicle-reconstituted Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor: see J. Biol. Chem., 275, 30458 (2000) (Abstract:http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/abstract/275/39/30458.

The same workers also used Nanogold labeling to localize the N-terminal Domain by cryo-EM; J. Biol. Chem., 275, 30465 (2000) (Abstract: http://www.jbc.org/cgi/content/abstract/275/39/30465.

David Gittins and co-workers have developed a nanometer-scale electronic switch consisting of a metal cluster (gold nanoparticle) and redox-addressable groups; read their paper in Nature (Gittins, D. I., et al., Nature 408, 67 - 69 (2000). Abstract (requires registration): http://www.nature.com/nlink/v408/n6808/abs/408067a0_fs.html.

Autometallography can detect more than gold: for example, Gorm Danscher and co-workers describe the autometallographic detection of bismuth. Danscher, G., et al., J. Histochem. Cytochem., 48, 1503 (2000). Abstract: http://www.jhc.org/cgi/content/abstract/48/11/1503

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