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Buy now1.4 nm Nanogold® Labeling Reagents


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Nanogold® is a better gold label. The 1.4 nm Nanogold® particle is a gold compound: it is not just adsorbed to proteins, like colloidal gold, but covalently reacts at specific sites under mild buffer conditions. This gives a well defined product that can be purified chromatographically.

Nanogold® brings the versatility of fluorescent conjugation to gold labeling.

Label any molecule with a suitable reactive group: oligonucleotides, lipids, peptides, proteins, enzyme inhibitors and others. This is a big improvement over colloidal gold, which may be adsorbed only to antibodies and a limited range of proteins and peptides.

Nanogold® is small and highly uniform in size, in sharp contrast to small colloidal gold preparations (most commonly used "1 nm" colloidal golds actually range from 1 to 3 nm).

Label your own biomolecules with our Nanogold® labeling reagents,
or check out our range of antibody IgG, Fab' and streptavidin Conjugates with Nanogold®.

Left: Silver-enhanced Nanogold®-labeled K+ channel Kv2.1 subunit in rat brain, X15,000 (J.-H. Tao-Cheng, NIH).

Right: Darkfield STEM micrographs of Maleimido Nanogold® labeled A β peptide targeting proteasomes; sample was stained with methylamine vanadate. White dots are 1.4 nm Nanogold®.

From Gregori, L., Hainfeld, J.F., Simon, M.N., and Goldgaber, D.  (1997).  Binding of amyloid beta protein to the 20S proteasome. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 58-62.

Although 1.4 nm Nanogold® is smaller than most other EM probes, it can easily be enhanced with GoldEnhance™ or silver (LI Silver or HQ Silver) by brief exposure (1 - 5 min.) to produce highly visible grains 2-20 nm in size (depending on development time). Further development (8-25 min.) gives a black signal easily seen in the light microscope and on immunoblots, polyacrylamide gels and Western blots.

Try GoldEnhance™ EM Plus for slow development with low background!

 


Features of Nanogold®

  • Unparalleled penetration of conjugates -up to 40 µm!
  • Higher density of immunolabeling
    than with larger gold probes.
  • Can be conjugated to any molecule with a suitable reactive group. Available with different reactivities.
  • Extremely uniform 1.4 nm gold particle.
  • Label at specific sites
    which do not obstruct native reactivity.
  • Close to stoichiometric labeling.
  • Reacts under mild, neutral conditions.
  • Conjugates are easily isolated by gel filtration.
  • Conjugates are stable to a wide range of pH
    and ionic strengths.
  • High stability: conjugates show unchanged reactivity after storage for a year.

After labeling with Nanogold®,
get rapid, precise enhancement
with our Silver Enhancers
or new GoldEnhance™!

 Nanogold labels only at specific reactive sites. Labeling is selective for thiols (cysteine residues) or primary amines (N-terminal, or lysine residues)

 


Buy nowMonomaleimido Nanogold® - Instructions

Prepare the smallest gold immunoprobe with your own primary antibody
for unsurpassed resolution, penetration and localization, or label a variety of other biological molecules.

1.4 nm Monomaleimido Nanogold® may be used to covalently label Fab', IgG, proteins or peptides containing cysteine, and other molecules with sulfhydryls -- Use our unique gold labeling reagents just as you would use fluorescent labeling reagents.

Easy to use: Simply mix redissolved Monomaleimido Nanogold® with the target molecule for 1-16 hours, then chromatographically purify the product by gel filtration, ion exchange chromatography or hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The maleimide on the 1.4 nm Nanogold® specifically reacts with a free sulfhydryl under mild conditions to produce a stable covalent bond.

A similar product based on the smaller 11 gold atom cluster, undecagold, is also available (Monomaleimido-Undecagold).

Applications:

  • Create your own small gold probes by linking Nanogold® to your primary antibody Fab' fragments. [References]
  • Label other proteins directly for high resolution site specific identification.
  • Label peptides containing cysteine (see Gregori, L., et al.; J. Biol. Chem., 272, 258-262 (1997)). [References]
  • Label 5'-thiolated oligonucleotides directly with Nanogold® (see Alivisatos, A. P., et al.; Nature, 382, 609 (1996)). [References]

Monomaleimido Nanogold® labeling
of the phosphorylase kinase complex:


STEM images of phosphorylase kinase complex with Nanogold-labeled d subunit.

Phosphorylase-b kinase was incubated with excess exogenous calmodulin and a threshold concentration of urea to promote exchange of calmodulin for the d subunit and size exclusion-HPLC was used to remove the excess calmodulin from the enzyme. Using metabolically labeled [35S]calmodulin to allow quantification, an exchange of approximately 10% of all d subunits within 1 h was measured. The exchanged enzyme retained full catalytic activity. Calmodulins that were then derivatized with maleimido-Nanogold and exchanged under the conditions described above. Analysis of STEM images of these Nanogold-exchanged images allowed the placement of the d subunit within the phosphorylase kinase holoenzyme.

From: Traxler KW, Norcum MT, Hainfeld JF, Carlson GM. Direct Visualization of the Calmodulin Subunit of Phosphorylase Kinase via Electron Microscopy Following Subunit Exchange. J Struct Biol. 2001 Sep;135(3):231-8.

Need an even smaller probe? Try our 0.8 nm Monomaleimido-Undecagold



Buy nowMono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold® - Instructions

Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold® is the 1.4 nm Nanogold® compound with a single reactive group, a sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (sulfo-NHS) that reacts with primary amines under mild conditions (pH 7.5 to 8.2).

The result is stable, covalent attachment of the Nanogold® to a protein, lipid, peptide, modified oligonucleotide or other amine-containing molecule to give a unique gold probe without the problems associated with colloidal gold (aggregation, poor stability, and low penetration).

Nanogold® is readily enhanced with a silver developer (LI Silver or HQ Silver) so that the small gold particles are easily visualized by EM or light microscopy, or by eye on blots and gels.

Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold® is easy to use: The dry labeling reagent is dissolved in a small amount of DMSO or isopropanol, reconstituted with water and mixed with the molecule to be labeled. Reaction is complete in a few hours, and the labeled conjugate is purified chromatographically by gel filtration.

Applications:

  • Label proteins which do not contain a cysteine.
  • Label peptides at the N-terminal (see Segond von Banchet, G., and Heppelman, B.: J. Histochem. Cytochem., 43, 821 (1995)).
  • Use Fv antibody fragments to prepare the smallest antibody probes (see Ribrioux, S., et al.: J. Histochem. Cytochem., 44, 207-213 (1996)).
  • Label small molecules as inhibitors or substrate analogs.
  • Label amino-substituted lipids for insertion into liposomes.

Need an even smaller probe? Try our 0.8 nm Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Undecagold

 


Buy nowMonoamino Nanogold® - Instructions

1.4 nm Nanogold® with a primary amine attached for crosslinking reactions.

Covalent attachment to the carbohydrate moiety of a glycoprotein may be achieved by periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate followed by reaction with Monoamino Nanogold® and reduction of the resulting Schiff base linkages (see: Shah, N., et al.: Endocrinology, 136, 2825-2835 (1995)).

Need an even smaller probe? Try our 0.8 nm Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Undecagold

 


Buy nowCharged Nanogold® - Instructions

Positively and negatively charged 1.4 nm Nanogold® may be used as ionic labels.

The positive Nanogold® has multiple amines on its surface, whereas negative Nanogold® has multiple carboxyl groups.

Application:

  • Tracing the yeast endocytic pathway (see: Prescianotto-Baschong, C., and Riezman, H.: Mol. Cell Biol., 9, 173-189 (1998)). [Other references]

Need an even smaller probe? Try our 0.8 nm Charged Undecagold

 


Buy nowNon-Functionalized Nanogold® - Instructions

Non-fuctionalized Nanogold® is an inert, stable form of the 1.4 nm Nanogold® particle with no reactive chemical functionalities or specific affinity properties.

Applications:

  • As a size standard for calibration in high-resolution electron microscopy.
  • Sizing pores (see: Schwartz, M. P., and Matouschek, A.: The dimensions of the protein import channels in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 13086-13090 (1999)). [Complete references]
  • For tracing contiguous interior spaces in cells and tissues.

Need an even smaller probe? Try our 0.8 nm Non-Functionalized Undecagold

 


Custom Nanogold® Conjugates & Labeling

Nanoprobes will perform custom conjugation of Nanogold®, FluoroNanogold, undecagold or colloidal gold to primary antibodies, peptides, small molecules, or other molecules if feasible. This includes the purification and characterization of conjugates. Call 877-447-6266 (US toll-free number) or (631) 205-9490, use the custom synthesis quotation form, or e-mail us at [email protected] to discuss your project and obtain a quote.

 

 

Price List:
1.4 nm Nanogold®
Labeling Reagents
Paying by Purchase Order? Please use our Online Order Form.

Custom conjugation is also available, of Nanogold®, FluoroNanogold, undecagold
or colloidal gold to primary antibodies, peptides, small molecules, or other molecules.
Need rapid, precise enhancement? Try our Silver Enhancers and Gold Enhancers
Monomaleimido Nanogold®
#2020
Monomaleimido Nanogold®
1.4 nm gold particle with single maleimide group for selectively labeling thiols (-SH). May be used to label primary Fab' antibody fragments, IgG, cysteine groups on proteins, or other sulfhydryl containing compounds. 30 nmol provided: enough to label 0.2 mg of Fab'. 30 nmol
$415
Qty:

Code (Optional)

#2020A
Monomaleimido Nanogold®
in 5 aliquots

Same total quantity as 2020, but provided in 5 separate tubes. Since the malieide moiety is unstable once dissolved, separate aliquots are preferable if several smaller-quantity labeling reactions are planned at different times.
30 nmol
in 5 aliquots
$463
Qty:

Code (Optional)

#2020S
Monomaleimido Nanogold® introductory size
Same as 2020, but packaged in an introductory size for smaller labeling experiments. 6 nmol
$129
Qty:

Code (Optional)

Monoamino Nanogold®
#2021
Monoamino Nanogold®
1.4 nm gold particle with a single primary amine may be used for labeling the carbohydrate moiety of glycoproteins or other applications. 30 nmol
$309
Qty:

Code (Optional)

#2021A
Monoamino Nanogold®
in 5 aliquots

Same total quantity as 2021, but provided in 5 separate tubes. Preferable if several smaller-quantity labeling reactions are planned at different times.

30 nmol
in 5 aliquots
$345

Qty:

Code (Optional)

#2021S
Monoamino Nanogold® introductory size
Same as 2021, but packaged in an introductory size for smaller labeling experiments. 6 nmol
$89
Qty:

Code (Optional)

Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold®
#2025
Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold®
1.4 nm gold particle with a single N-hydroxy-sulfosuccin-imide group. Used for labeling primary amines. 30 nmol
$415
Qty:

Code (Optional)

#2025A
Mono-Sulfo- NHS-Nanogold®
in 5 aliquots

Same total quantity as 2025, but provided in 5 separate tubes. Since the malieide moiety is unstable once dissolved, separate aliquots are preferable if several smaller-quantity labeling reactions are planned at different times.
30 nmol
in 5 aliquots
$463
Qty:

Code (Optional)

#2025S
Mono-Sulfo-NHS-Nanogold® introductory size
Same as 2025, but packaged in an introductory size for smaller labeling experiments. 6 nmol
$129
Qty:

Code (Optional)

Charged Nanogold®
#2022
Positively Charged Nanogold®
1.4 nm gold particles with a net positive charge; contains multiple amines. Use these particles for alternative coupling schemes, or to bind to negatively charged sites. 30 nmol
$312
Qty:

Code (Optional)

#2023
Negatively Charged Nanogold®
1.4 nm gold particles with a net negative charge; contains multiple amines. Use these particles for alternative coupling schemes, or to bind to positively charged sites. 30 nmol
$312
Qty:

Code (Optional)

Non-Functionalized Nanogold®
#2010
Nanogold® Particles, Non- Functionalized
1.4 nm gold particles only, lyophilized; non-reactive form. 30 nmol
$206
Qty:

Code (Optional)

Nanogold® Custom Labeling
Custom Labeling with Nanogold® Your antibody (IgG or Fab'), proteins, and other molecules. Contact us for a quote
View Cart Paying by purchase order? Please use our online order form.
International orders: Our regional distributors can provide expedited customs processing and delivery.

 

 

 

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