References: 0.8 nm Undecagold Labeling




General Applications

  1. Bartlett, P.A., Bauer, B., and Singer, S.J. Synthesis of water-soluble undecagold cluster compounds of potential importance in electron microscopic and other studies of biological systems; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 100, 5085 (1978).
  2. Frey, P. A., and Frey, T. G.: Synthesis of undecagold labeling compounds and their applications in electron microscopic analysis of multiprotein complexes. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 94-100 (1999).
  3. Hainfeld, J.F. Gold cluster-labelled antibodies. Nature, 333, 281-282 (1988).
  4. Hainfeld, J.F. Undecagold-antibody method. In Colloidal Gold: Principles, Methods, and Applications., M.A. Hayat (Ed.), San Diego, Academic Press; Vol. 2, pp. 413-429 (1989).
  5. Jahn, W.: Chemical aspects of the use of gold clusters in structural biology. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 106-112 (1999).
  6. McPartlin, M., Mason, R., and Malatesta, I.: Novel cluster complexes of gold(0)-gold(I); J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 334 (1969).
  7. Reardon, J. E., and Frey, P. A.: Synthesis of undecagold cluster molecules as biochemical labeling reagents. 1. Monoacyl and mono [N-(succinimidoxy) succinyl clusters; Biochemistry, 23, 3849-3856 (1984).
  8. Safer, D.: Undecagold cluster labeling of proteins at reactive cysteine residues. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 101-105 (1999).
  9. Safer, D., Bolinger, L., and Leigh, J.S. Undecagold clusters for site-specific labeling of biological macromolecules: Simplified preparation and model applications. J. Inorg. Biochem., 26, 77 (1986).
  10. Steinmetz, M. O., Stoffler, D., Muller, S. A., Jahn, W., Wolpensinger, B., Goldie, K. N., Engel, A., Faulstich, H., and Aebi, U.: Evaluating atomic models of F-actin with an undecagold-tagged phalloidin derivative; J. Mol. Biol., 276, 1 (1998).
  11. Wall, J.S., Hainfeld, J.F., Bartlett, P.A., and Singer, S.J. Observation of an undecagold cluster compound in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Ultramicroscopy, 8, 397 (1982).


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Cancer Research

  1. Hainfeld, J.F. Gold, electron microscopy, and cancer therapy. Scanning Micros., in press (1995).
  2. Hainfeld, J.F., Foley, C.F., Srivastava, S.C., Mausner, L.F. Feng, N.I., Meinken, G.E., and Steplewski, Z. Radioactive gold cluster immunoconjugates: Potential agents for cancer therapy. Nucl. Med. Biol., 17, 287-294 (1990).


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Charged Undecagold

  1. Valdivia, E., Gabel, C., Reardon, J.E., CaJacob, C.A., Yang, H., Wehbi, R.S., Scott, G.L., Frey, P.A., and Fahien, L.A., Functional and morphological studies of mitochondria exposed to undecagold clusters: biologic surfaces labeling with gold clusters. Scanning Microsc., 6, 799-814 (1992).


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DNA and RNA Labeling

  1. Blechschmidt, B., Shirokov, V., and Sprinzl M. Undecagold cluster modified tRNA (Phe) from Escherichia coli and its activity in the protein elongation cycle. J. Biochem., 219, 65-71 (1994).
  2. Blechschmidt, B., Jahn, W. Hainfeld, J.F., Sprinzl, M., and Boublik, M. Visualization of a ternary complex of the Escherichia coli Phe-tRNA(Phe) andTu.-GTP from Thermus thermophilus by scanning transmission electron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol., 110, 84-89 (1993).
  3. Hainfeld, J. F.; Liu, W., and Barcena, M.: Gold-ATP. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 120-134 (1999).
  4. Hainfeld, J.F., Sprinzl, M., Mandiyan, V., Tumminia, S.J. and Boublik, M. Localization of a specific nucleotide in yeast tRNA by scanning transmission electron microscopy using an undecagold cluster. J. Struc. Biol., 107, 1-5, (1991) (Cover picture).
  5. Skripkin, E., Yusupova, G., Yusupov, M., Kessler, P. Kessler, P., Ehresmann, C., and Ehresmann, B. Syntheses and ribosome binding properties of model mRNAs modified with undecagold cluster. Bioconj. Chem., 4, 549-553 (1993).


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Glycoprotein Labeling

  1. Lipka, J.J., Hainfeld, J.F., and Wall, J.S. Undecagold labeling of a glycoprotein: STEM visualization of an undecagoldphosphine cluster labeling the carbohydrate sites of human haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 84, 120 (1983).


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  1. Schwartz, M. P., and Matouschek, A.: The dimensions of the protein import channels in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 13086-13090 (1999).


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Toxin Conjugate

  1. Kessler, P., Kotzyba-Hilbert, F., Leonetti, M., Bouet, F., Ringler, P., Brisson, A., Mendez, A., Goeldner, M. P.and Hirth, C. Synthesis of an acetylcoline receptor-specific toxin derivative regioselectively labeled with an undecagold cluster. Bioconj. Chem., 5, 199-204 (1994).
  2. Servent, D., Menez, A., and Kessler, P. Site-directed disulfide reduction using an affinity reagent: application on the nicotinic acetylchloine receptor. FEBS Lett., 360, 261-5 (1995).


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Transmission Electron Microscopy

Image Processing

Cryoelectron Microscopy

  1. Milligan, R.A., Whittaker, M., and Safer, D. Molecular structure of F-actin and location of surface binding sites. Nature,, 348, 217-221 (1990).
  2. Safer, D., Hainfeld, J. F., Wall, J. S., and Reardon J. E. Biospecific labeling with undecagold: visualization of the biotin-binding site on Avidin. ,Science 218, 290 (1982).
  3. Zlotnick, A., Cheng, N., Stahl, S. J., Conway, J. F., Steven, A. C., and Wingfield, P. T. Localization of the C terminus of the assembly domain of hepatitis B virus capsid protein: Implications for morphogenesis and organization of encapsidated RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 9556-9561 (1997).

Negative Staining

  1. Crum, J., Gruys, K.J., and Frey, T.G. Electron microscopy of cytochrome c oxidase crystals: labeling of subunit III with a monomaleimide undecagold cluster compound. Biochemistry. 1994 Nov 22; 33(46):13719-26.
  2. Crum, J., Gruys, K.J., and Frey, T.G. Undecagold labeling of cytochrome c oxidase dimer crystals. In Bailey, G.W. and Hall, E.L., eds. Proc. 49th Ann. Meeting Elec. Micros. Soc. Amer., San Francisco Press, 278-279 (1991).


  1. Schnyder, T., Tittmann, P., Winkler, H., Gross, H., and Wallimann, T.: Localization of reactive cysteine residues by maleidoyl undecagold in the mitochondrial creatine kinase octamer; J. Struct. Biol., 14, 209-217 (1995).

STEM: Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

  1. Mosseson, M. W., Siebenlist, K. R., Meh, D. A., Wall, J. S., and Hainfeld, J. F. The location of the carboxy-terminal region of gamma chains in fibrinogen and fibrin D domains. Proc. Natl. Acad.Sci. USA, 95, 10511-10516 (1998).
  2. Steinmetz, M. O., Stoffler, D., Muller, S. A., Jahn, W., Wolpensinger, B., Goldie, K. N., Engel, A., Faulstich, H., and Aebi, U.: Evaluating atomic models of F-actin with an undecagold-tagged phalloidin derivative; J. Mol. Biol., 276, 1 (1998).
  3. Watts, N. R. M.; Hainfeld, J. F., and Coombs, D. H.: Localization of the proteins gp7, gp8 and gp10 in the bacteriophage T4 baseplate with colloidal gold: F(ab')2 and undecagold: Fab' conjugates. J. Mol. Biol., 216, 315-325 (1990).
  4. Wilkinson, D.A., Marion, T.N., Tillman, D.M., Norcum, M.T., Hainfeld, J.F., Seyer, J. M., and Carlson, G.M. An epitope proximal to the carobxyl terminus of the a - subunit is located near the tips of the phosphorylase kinase hexadecamer. J. Mol. Biol., 235, 974-982 (1994).
  5. Yang, Y.S., Datta, A., Hainfeld, J.F., Furuya, F.R., Wall, J.S. and Frey, P.A. Mapping the lipoyl groups of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by use of gold cluster-labels and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Biochemistry, 33, 9428-37 (1994).


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X-Ray Crystallography / Isomorphous Replacement

  1. Bartels, H., Bennett, W. S., Hansen, H. A., Eisenstein, M., and Weinstein S. Mussig, J., Volkmann, N., Schlunzen, F., Agmon, I., and Franceschi, F., et al: The suitability of a monofunctional reagent of an undecagold cluster for phasing data collected from the large ribosomal subunits from Bacillus stearothermophilus [Review]; Biopolymers, 37, 411-419 (1995).
  2. Sagi, I., Weinrich, V., Levin, I., Glotz, C., Laschever, M., Melamud, M., Franceschi, F., Weinstein, S., and Yonath, A.: Crystallography of ribosomes: attempts at decorating the ribosomal surface; Biophys. Chem., 55, 31-42 (1995).
  3. Thygesen, J., Weinstein, S., Franceshi, F., and Yonath, A.: The suitability of multi-metal clusters for phasing in crystallography of large macromolecular assemblies [review]. Structure, 4, 513-518 (1996). [Full PDF available here]
  4. Weinstein S., Jahn, W., Hansen, H., Wittmann, H.G., and Yonath, A. J. Novel procedures for derivatization of ribosomes for crystallographic studies. Biol. Chem., 264, 19138-19142 (1989).


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