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Dr. James F. Hainfeld, PhD


Dr. James F. Hainfeld, Nanoprobes founder and Chief Mad Scientist
Dr. James F. Hainfeld, Nanoprobes founder and Chief Mad Scientist.

Dr. James F. Hainfeld is the President, founder and chief Research Scientist of Nanoprobes, a nanoparticle research collaborative dedicated to finding cures for cancer and other diseases. He is the winner of the 2011 Röntgen Prize by the British Institute of Radiology, for special merit and contributing materially to the advancement of the science and practice of radiotherapy, radiobiology, and physics.

Dr. Hainfeld is a senior scientist, his world bridging biology, physics and chemistry. One of the original fathers of the nanoparticle, he engineered some of the very earliest under an electron microscope at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the 1970s. After founding his own laboratory at Nanoprobes in 1990, Dr. Hainfeld has pursued his passion: seeking cures for cancer and other diseases, using specially engineered nanoparticles.

Learn more about Dr. Hainfeld's latest cancer research:
Curing Cancer with Magnetic Nanoparticles

For over thirty years, Dr. Hainfeld has pioneered the use of metal nanoparticles as labels and probes for biological structures and processes, and first introduced gold clusters as immunolabels. He has adapted nanoparticles containing gold, iridium, tungsten, uranium, platinum and silver for use in biological systems; many of these he characterized at the molecular level and by electron microscopy. He co-developed with Vice President Dr. Frederic Furuya the very useful Nanogold cluster. He also discovered Enzyme Metallography, a sensitive detection method using enzymes to deposit metals, now being used in clinical cancer tests (see Saving Lives with EnzMet: the HER2 Breast Cancer Test).

Dr. Hainfeld holds a B.S.E. (Electrical Engineering) from Princeton University and a Ph.D. (Chemistry / Biochemistry) from the University of Texas at Austin, where he worked with D. J. DeRosier and L. J. Reed, and was a postdoctoral fellow with A. V. Crewe and T. L. Steck (Biophysics/Biology) at the University of Chicago. He then joined the Biology Department at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1976, where he worked until 2009, becoming co-principal investigator (with Joseph Wall) of the Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope STEM Facility.

Dr. James F. Hainfeld, our Fearless Leader...
Dr. James F. Hainfeld, out of superhero costume.

Dr. Hainfeld was nationally elected to serve as Counsellor to The Histochemical Society, and served on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry. His experience includes synthetic chemistry, molecular biology, immunocytochemistry, in situ hybridization, electron and light microscopy, NMR, cell culture, implantation of tumors in mice, tail vein injections, dissections, biodistribution studies, and analytic techniques, such as FTIR, mass and atomic absorption spectrometry. He has conducted radioimmunotherapy studies using radioactive gold clusters, and use of natural gold nanoparticles in Photon Activated Therapy. His interests also include MRI, where he has synthesized novel magnetic nanoparticle contrast agents.

Dr. Hainfeld's current research is focused on the use of gold and magnetic nanoparticles for cancer therapy, medical uses of metal nanoparticles as contrast agents for X-ray and MRI for heart disease and tumor detection, development of new labels for light and electron microscopy, ultra-sensitive detection methods, and fusion protein drug development. He has obtained over 25 patents and has more than 150 reviewed publications.

Dr. Hainfeld also holds joint appointments at Brookhaven National Laboratory and as Adjunct Professor at Stony Brook University (State University of New York).

Curriculum Vitae
E-mail Dr. Hainfeld: hainfeld[at]nanoprobes.com



Publications

  1. Huang, HS and Hainfeld, JF. Intravenous magnetic nanoparticle cancer hyperthermia. International Journal of Nanomedicine July 2013 Volume 2013: 8 Pages 2521 – 2532.
  2. Hainfeld, J.F., O'Connor, M.J., Lin, P.P., Smilowitz, H.M. 2012. Cancer Therapy with wIRA and Gold Nanoparticles. In: Water-Filtered Infrared-A Radiation: From Basic Principles to Clinical Applications. D. Bickes-Kelleher, H-W. Muller, P. Paupel (eds). Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart. Manuscript Submitted. In Press.
  3. Hainfeld JF, Smilowitz HM, O'Connor MJ, Dilmanian FA, Slatkin DN. Gold nanoparticle imaging and radiotherapy of brain tumors in mice. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2012 Dec 24. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23265347.
  4. Powell RD, Hainfeld JF. Preparation and high-resolution microscopy of gold cluster labeled nucleic acid conjugates and nanodevices. Micron. 2011 Feb; 42 (2): 163-74. Epub 2010 Sep 8. PMID: 20869258.
  5. Ackerson CJ, Powell RD, Hainfeld JF. Site-specific biomolecule labeling with gold clusters. Methods Enzymol. 2010; 481:195-230. PMID: 20887859.
  6. Hainfeld JF, O'Connor MJ, Dilmanian FA, Slatkin DN, Adams DJ, Smilowitz HM. Micro-CT enables microlocalisation and quantification of Her2-targeted gold nanoparticles within tumour regions. Br J Radiol. 2011 Jun; 84 (1002): 526-33. PMID: 21081567.
  7. W Liu, D Mitra, V Joshi, R Powell, J Hainfeld, J Serrano-Velez, E Rosa-Molinar, I Torres-Vasquez, E Rosa-Molinar and P Takvorian (2011). EnzMet for Versatile, Highly Sensitive Light and Electron Microscopy Staining. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 17 (Suppl. 2) , pp 116-117. doi:10.1017/S1431927611001450.
  8. Joshi, V, M Jain, F Furuya, R Powell, J Hainfeld, M Llaguno and D Hilgemann (2011). HaloTag® Protein-Mediated Live Cell Imaging with Bigger FluoroNanogold™. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 17 (Suppl. 2) , pp 150-151. doi:10.1017/S1431927611001620.
  9. V Joshi, M Jain, F Furuya, R Powell, J Hainfeld, J Nelson, C Jacobsen, J Quinn and A Neiman (2011). Combined Texas Red and 1.8 nm FluoroNanohold™ for Multimodal Imaging. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 17 (Suppl. 2) , pp 152-153. doi:10.1017/S1431927611001632.
  10. Hainfeld JF, Dilmanian FA, Zhong Z, Slatkin DN, Kalef-Ezra JA, Smilowitz HM. Gold nanoparticles enhance the radiation therapy of a murine squamous cell carcinoma. Phys Med Biol. 2010; 55: 3045-3059.
  11. Dubendorff, JW, E Lymar, FR Furuya and JF Hainfeld (2010). Gold Labeling of Protein Fusion Tags for EM. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 16 (Suppl. 2) , pp 866-867. doi:10.1017/S1431927610061465.
  12. Joshi, VN, D Mitra, MD England, FR Furuya, RD Powell and JF Hainfeld (2010). Large Covalently Linked Fluorescent and Gold Nanoparticle Immunoprobes. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 16 (Suppl. 2) , pp 966-967. doi:10.1017/S1431927610061969.
  13. Wall Joseph S.; Simon Martha N.; Hainfeld James F. History of the STEM at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hawkes, PW, Advances In Imaging And Electron Physics, Vol 159: Cold Field Emission And The Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics Volume: 159 Pages: 101-121 DOI: 10.1016/S1076-5670(09)59003-9, 2009
  14. Hainfeld, J.F., Slatkin, D.N., Dilmanian, F.A., Smilowitz, H.M. 2008. Radiotherapy Enhancement with Gold Nanoparticles. J. Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 60: 977-985 (PMID 18644191) Volume 60 #8 is a Special Issue: Radiation Biology – Can New Concepts Achieve Better Treatment Outcomes? JPP has informed us that this paper is one of the top 25 most downloaded papers in 2008.
  15. Briñas RP, Hu M, Qian L, Lymar ES, Hainfeld JF. Gold nanoparticle size controlled by polymeric Au(I) thiolate precursor size. J Am Chem Soc. 2008 Jan 23;130(3):975-82.
  16. Hu M, Zhang YB, Qian L, Briñas RP, Kuznetsova L, Hainfeld JF. Three-dimensional structure of human chromatin accessibility complex hCHRAC by electron microscopy. J Struct Biol. 2008 Dec;164(3):263-9.
  17. Hu M, Lymar E, Zhang YB, Qian L, Briñas R, Kuznetsova L, Hainfeld J. Three-dimensional structure of ATP-dependent molecular machine hCHRAC for chromatin remodeling. Microsc Microanal. 2008 Aug; 14 Suppl 2:1588-9. doi:10.1017/S1431927608081324.
  18. Hu, M., Qian, L., Briñas, R.B., Lymar, E.S, Kuznetsova, L., and Hainfeld, J.F. Gold nanoparticle-protein arrays improve resolution for cryo-electron microscopy. Journal of Structural Biology, 2008 Jan; 161(1):83-91.
  19. Minghui Hu, Luping Qian, Raymond P Brifias, Elena S Lymar, and James F Hainfeld. Protein Assembly Through Site-specific Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles. Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proe. Vol. 951 (2007) Materials Research Society 0951-EIO-IO
  20. Hu, M, L Qian, RP Brinas, ES Lymar, L Kuznetsova and JF Hainfeld (2007). Nanoparticle-protein Arrays Improve Protein Structural Analysis in Cryo-electron Microscopy. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 13 (Suppl. 02) , pp 416-417. doi:10.1017/S1431927607071905.
  21. Powell, RD, VN Joshi, PM Takvorian, A Cali and JF Hainfeld (2007). Correlative Enzymatic and Gold Probes for Light and Electron Microscopy. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 13 (Suppl. 02) , pp 244-245. doi:10.1017/S143192760707451X.
  22. Powell RD, Pettay JD, Powell WC, Roche PC, Grogan TM, Hainfeld JF, Tubbs RR. Metallographic in situ hybridization. Hum Pathol. 2007 Aug; 38(8):1145-59.
  23. Hu M, Qian L, Brinas RP, Lymar ES, Hainfeld JF. Assembly of Nanoparticle-Protein Binding Complexes: From Monomers to Ordered Arrays. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2007 Jul 2; 46(27): 5111-5114.
  24. Hainfeld JF, Slatkin DN, Focella TM, Smilowitz HM. Gold nanoparticles: a new X-ray contrast agent. (2006). Br J Radiol. Mar;79(939):248-53.
  25. Hu, Minghui, Luping Qian, Raymond P Briñas, Elena S Lymar and James F Hainfeld (2006). Protein Assembly Through Site-specific Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles. MRS Proceedings, 951, 0951-E10-10 doi:10.1557/PROC-0951-E10-10.
  26. Powell, R, V Joshi, A Thelian, W Liu, P Takvorian, A Cali and J Hainfeld (2006). Light and Electron Microscopy of Microsporida using Enzyme Metallography. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 12 (Suppl. 02) , pp 424-425. doi:10.1017/S1431927606064749.
  27. Powell, RD; Joshi, VN; Hainfeld, JF; et al. Color conversion of enzyme metallographic signals: A new ultrasensitive method for chromogenic signal generation. Modern Pathology Volume: 19 Supplement: 1 Pages: 333A-333A Meeting Abstract: 1553 Published: JAN 2006
  28. Reddy, V, E Lymar, M Hu and J F Hainfeld (2005). 5 nm Gold-Ni-NTA Binds His Tags. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 11 (Suppl. 02) , pp 1118-1119. doi:10.1017/S1431927605507712.
  29. Joshi, V N, A Bhatnagar, R D Powell and J F Hainfeld (2005). Towards Bigger Nanogold: Preparation of Covalent 3nm Gold-Fab' Probes. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 11 (Suppl. 02) , pp 1176-1177. doi:10.1017/S1431927605508675.
  30. V N Joshi, D Ramamurthy, R D Powell, F R Furuya and J F Hainfeld (2005). High Z Metal Carbonyls for Imaging and Microspectroscopy. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 11 (Suppl. 02) , pp 794-795. doi:10.1017/S1431927605506718.
  31. J. F. Hainfeld*, D. N. Slatkin* , T. M. Focella* and H. M. Smilowitz**, In Vivo Vascular Casting. Microscopy and Microanalysis (2005), 11(Suppl. 02): 1216-1217. doi:10.1017/S143192760550847X.
  32. Dilmanian FA, Qu Y, Liu S, Cool CD, Gilbert J, Hainfeld JF, Kruse CA, Laterra J, Lenihan D, Nawrocky MM, Pappas G, Sze CI, Yuasa T, Zhong N, Zhong Z, McDonald JW. X-ray microbeams: Tumor therapy and central nervous system research. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res A. 2005 Aug 11; 548 (1-2): 30-37.
  33. Tubbs R, Pettay J, Powell R, Hicks DG, Roche P, Powell W, Grogan T, Hainfeld JF. High-Resolution Immunophenotyping of Subcellular Compartments in Tissue Microarrays by Enzyme Metallography. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005 Dec; 13 (4): 371-375.
  34. Downs-Kelly E, Pettay J, Hicks D, Skacel M, Yoder B, Rybicki L, Myles J, Sreenan J, Roche P, Powell R, Hainfeld J, Grogan T, Tubbs R. Analytical Validation and Interobserver Reproducibility of EnzMet GenePro: A Second-Generation Bright-Field Metallography Assay for Concomitant Detection of HER2 Gene Status and Protein Expression in Invasive Carcinoma of the Breast. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005 Nov; 29 (11): 1505-1511.
  35. Moller R, Powell RD, Hainfeld JF, Fritzsche W. Enzymatic control of metal deposition as key step for a low-background electrical detection for DNA chips. Nano Lett. 2005 Jul;5(7):1475-82.
  36. Tubbs R, Pettay J, Hicks D, Skacel M, Powell R, Grogan T, Hainfeld J. Novel bright field molecular morphology methods for detection of HER2 gene amplification. J Mol Histol. 2004 Aug; 35 (6): 589-94.
  37. F. R. Furuya, V. N. Joshi., J. F. Hainfeld, R. D. Powell, and P. M. Takvorian. Enzymatic Metallography as a Correlative Light and Electron Microscopy Method. Microsc. Microanal., 10, Suppl. 2. Proceedings of Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004; Anderson, I. M.; Price, R.; Hall, E.; Clark, E., and McKernan, S., Eds.; Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2004, p. 1210CD. or Microscopy Method. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 10 (Suppl. 02) , pp 1210-1211. doi:10.1017/S1431927604886136.
  38. Mosesson MW, Diorio JP, Hernandez I, Hainfeld JF, Wall JS, Grieninger G. The ultrastructure of fibrinogen-420 and the fibrin-420 clot. Biophys Chem. 2004. 112(2-3): 209-14.
  39. Hainfeld, J.F., Slatkin, D.N., and Smilowitz, H.M. The use of gold nanoparticles to enhance radiotherapy in mice. Phys. Med. Biol. 49 (2004) N309-N315.
  40. Hainfeld, J. F., Powell, R. D., and Hacker, G. W. Nanoparticle Molecular Labels, in Nanobiotechnology, Niemeyer, C. M., and Mirkin, C.A., eds., Wiley-Vch, Germany, pp. 353-386, 2004.
  41. Dilmanian, F.A., Morris, G.M., Zhong, N., Bacarian, T., Hainfeld, J.F., Kalef-Ezra, J., Brewington, L., Tammam, J., and Rosen, E.M. (2003) Murine EMT-6 carcinoma: high therapeutic efficacy of microbeam radiation therapy. Radiat Res. May;159(5):632-41.
  42. Xiao, Y., Patolsky, F., Katz, E., Hainfeld, J.F., Willner, I. (2003) "Plugging into enzymes": Nanowiring of redox enzymes by a gold nanoparticle. Science. Mar 21;299(5614):1877-81.
  43. Joshi, V; Powell, R; Furuya, F, Hainfeld JF. Metal carbonyl clusters as infrared labels for biosensing. Abstracts of Papers of The American Chemical Society Volume: 226 Pages: U683-U683 Part: Part 1 Meeting Abstract: 073-CINF Published: SEP 2003
  44. Tubbs, R.: Skacel, M.; Pettay, J.; Powell, R.; Myles, J.; Hicks, D.; Sreenan, J.; Roche, P.; Stoler, M. H., and Hainfeld, J. Interobserver Interpretative Reproducibility of GOLDFISH, A First Generation Gold-Facilitated Auto-metallographic Bright Field In Situ Hybridization Assay for HER-2/neu Amplification in Invasive Mammary Carcinom. Am. J. Surg. Pathol., 26, 908-913 (2002).
  45. Tubbs, R.; Pettay, J.; Skacel, M.; Powell, R.; Stoler, M.; Roche, P., and Hainfeld, J. Gold-Facilitated in Situ Hybridization: A Bright-Field Autometallographic Alternative to Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for Detection of HER-2/neu Gene Amplification. Am. J. Pathol., 160, 1589-1595 (2002).
  46. Liu, Wenqiu, James F. Hainfeld and Richard D. Powell (2002). Combined Alexa-488 and Nanogold Antibody Probes. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 8 (Suppl. 02) , pp 1030-1031.
  47. Hainfeld, J. F., W. Liu, V. Joshi and R. D. Powell (2002). Nickel-NTA-Nanogold Binds His-Tagged Proteins. Microscopy and Microanalysis, 8 (Suppl. 02) , pp 832-833.
  48. Mosesson, M.W., Siebenlist, K.R., Hernandez, I., Wall, J.S., and Hainfeld, J.F. (2002) Fibrinogen asembly and crosslinking on a fibrin fragment E template. Thromb. Haemost. 87: 651-8.
  49. J. F. Hainfeld, R. N. Eisen, R. R. Tubbs, and R. D. Powell. Enzymatic Metallography: A Simple New Staining Method. Microsc. Microanal. 8 (Suppl. 2), 2002, pp.916-917CD. Voelkl, E., Piston, D., Gauvin, R., Lockley, A.J., Bailey, G.W., McKernan, S., eds. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, England.
  50. S. Xiao, F. Liu, A. E. Rosen, J. F. Hainfeld, N. C. Seeman, K. Musier-Forsyth, and R. A. Kiehl, (2002) Assembly of nanoparticle arrays by DNA scaffolding. J. Nanoparticle Research, 4:313-317.
  51. J. F. Hainfeld, R. N. Eisen, R. R. Tubbs, and R. D. Powell, Enzymatic Metallography: A Simple New Staining Method. Microsc. Microanal., 8, Suppl. 2. Proceedings of Microscopy and Microanalysis 2002; Voekl, E.; Piston, D.; Gauvin, R.; Lockley, A. J.; Bailey, G. W., and McKernan, S., Eds.; Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2002, p. 916CD. or Microscopy and Microanalysis, 8 (Suppl. 02) , pp 916-917.
  52. Hainfeld, J. F.; ; Furuya, F. R.; Powell, R. D., and Liu, W. DNA Nanowires. Microsc. Microanal., 2001: 7(Suppl. 2: Proceedings / Proceedings of the Fifty-Ninth Annual Meeting, Microscopy Society of America), 1034-1035 (2001).
  53. Hainfeld, J.F. and Powell, R.D. (2002). Silver and gold-based autometallography of Nanogold. In Gold and Silver Staining: Techniques in Molecular Morphology. Hacker, G.W. and Gu, J. Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 29-46.
  54. Powell, R.D. and Hainfeld, J.F. (2002) Combined fluorescent and gold probes for microscopic and morphological investigations. In Gold and Silver Staining: Techniques in Molecular Morphology. Hacker, G.W. and Gu, J. Eds. pp. 107-118.
  55. Hainfeld, J.F., Powell, R.D., and Furuya, F.R. (2002) Microscopic Uses of Nanogold. In Gold and Silver Staining: Techniques in Molecular Morphology. Hacker, GW and Gu, J Eds. CRC Press, Boca Raton pp. 85-106.
  56. Traxler KW, Norcum MT, Hainfeld JF, Carlson GM. (2001) Direct Visualization of the Calmodulin Subunit of Phosphorylase Kinase via Electron Microscopy Following Subunit Exchange. J Struct Biol. 135:231-8.
  57. Linderoth, N. A.; Simon, M. N.; Hainfeld, J. F., and Sastry, S. Binding of antigenic peptide to the endoplasmic reticulum-resident protein gp96/GRP94 heat shock chaperone occurs in higher order complexes. Essential role of some aromatic amino acid residues in the peptide-binding site. J. Biol. Chem., 276, 11049-54 (2001).
    • Reprint (PDF) (courtesy of the Journal of Biological Chemistry).
  58. Hainfeld, J. F.; Furuya, F. R., Powell, R. and Wall, J. S. Gold Cluster Crystals. Microsc. Microanal., 6, (Suppl. 2: Proceedings) (Proceedings of the Fifty-Eighth Annual Meeting, Microscopy Society of America); Bailey, G. W.; McKernan, S; Price, R. L.; Walck, S. D.; Charest, P.-M., and Gauvin, R., Eds.; Springer-Verlag, New York, NY, 326-327 (2000).
  59. Wall, J. S.; Simon, M. N.; Hainfeld, J. F. (2000). The BNL STEM Facility. Microscopy and Microanalysis; Vol 3; Supp/2 277-278.
  60. Hainfeld JF, Robinson JM. New frontiers in gold labeling. Symposium overview. J Histochem Cytochem. 2000 Apr; 48(4): 459-60.
  61. Mayer, G.; Leone, R. D.; Hainfeld, J. F., and Bendayan, M. Introduction of a novel HRP substrate-Nanogold probe for signal amplification in immunocytochemistry. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 48, 461-70 (2000).
  62. Hainfeld, J. F., and Powell, R. D. New frontiers in gold labeling. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 48, 471-480 (2000).
  63. Gutierrez, E.; Powell, R. D.; Hainfeld, J. F., and Takvorian, P. M. A Covalently Linked 10 nm Gold Immunoprobe; Proc. 57th Ann. Mtg., Micros. Soc. Amer.; G. W. Bailey, W. G. Jerome, S. McKernan, J. F. Mansfield, and R. L. Price (Eds.); Springer-Verlag, New York, NY; 1999, 1324-1325.
  64. Gutierrez, E.; Powell, R. D.; Furuya, F. R.; Hainfeld, J. F.; Schaaf, T. G.; Shafigullin, M. N.; Stephens, P. W., and Whetten, R. L. Greengold, a giant cluster compound of unusual eletronic structure. Eur. J. Phys., D., 9, 647-651 (1999).
  65. Hainfeld, J. F. (1999) Editorial. J Struct Biol, 127, 93.
  66. Cheng, N.; Conway, J. F.; Watts, N. R.; Hainfeld, J. F.; Joshi, V.; Powell, R. D.; Stahl, S. J.; Wingfield, P. E., and Steven, A. C.. Tetrairidium, a 4-atom Cluster, is Readily Visible as a Density Label in 3D Cryo-EM Maps of Proteins at 10 - 25 Å Resolution. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 169-176 (1999).
  67. Ni-NTA-Nanogold labels polyhistidine His-tagged proteins: STEM micrography by James F. Hainfeld, on the cover of the Journal of Structural BiologyHainfeld, J. F.; Liu, W.; Halsey, C. M. R.; Freimuth, P., and Powell, R. D. Ni-NTA-Gold Clusters Target His-Tagged Proteins. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 185-198 (1999).

    Cover: Gold clusters with nickel-NTA attached bind to 6x-histidine tagged proteins. These gold clusters are shown bound to the knob protein of adenovirus containing the 6x-histidine tag. Darkfield STEM micrograph, 128 nm full width, pseudocolored.

  68. Hainfeld, J. F.; Furuya, F. R., and Powell, R. D. Metallosomes. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 152-160 (1999).
  69. Hainfeld, J. F.; Liu, W., and Barcena, M. ATP-Gold. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 120-134 (1999).
  70. Powell, R. D.; Halsey, C. M. R.; Liu, W; Joshi, V. N., and Hainfeld, J. F. Giant Platinum Clusters: 2 nm Covalent Metal Cluster Labels. J. Struct. Biol., 127, 177-184 (1999).
  71. Hainfeld, J.F., Simon, M.N., Powell, R.D. STEM Specimen Preparation; Nanogold/Undecagold Labeling, in Multimedia methods in molecular biology, Chapman & Hall, 1999.
  72. Freimuth, P., Springer, K., Berard, C., Hainfeld, J., Bewley, M., and Flanagan, J. Coxackievirus and adenovirus receptor amino-terminal immunoglobulin V-related domain binds adenovirus type 2 and fiber knob from adenovirus type 12. J. Virol. 73, 1392-1398 (1999).
  73. Hainfeld, J. F.; Powell, R. D.; Stein, J. K.; Hacker, G. W.; Hauser-Kronberger, C.; Cheung, A. L. M., and Schofer, C.. Gold-based autometallography; Proc. 57th Ann. Mtg., Micros. Soc. Amer.; G. W. Bailey, W. G. Jerome, S. McKernan, J. F. Mansfield, and R. L. Price (Eds.); Springer-Verlag, New York, NY; 1999, 486-487.
  74. Powell, R. D.; Joshi, V. N.; Halsey, C. M. R.; Hainfeld, J. F.; Hacker, G. W.; Hauser-Kronberger, C.; Muss, W. H., and Takvorian, P. M.. Combined Cy3 / Nanogold conjugates for immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization; Proc. 57th Ann. Mtg., Micros. Soc. Amer.; G. W. Bailey, W. G. Jerome, S. McKernan, J. F. Mansfield, and R. L. Price (Eds.); Springer-Verlag, New York, NY; 1999, 478-479.
  75. Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., and Simon, M. N. Scanning transmission electron microscopy of nuclear structures. Methods Cell Biol., 53, 139-164 (1998).
  76. Mosseson, M. W.; Siebenlist, K. R.; Meh, D. A.; Wall, J. S., and Hainfeld, J. F. The location of the carboxy-terminal region of gamma chains in fibrinogen and fibrin D domains. Proc. Natl. Acad.Sci. USA, 95, 10511-10516 (1998).
  77. Powell, R.D., Halsey, C.M.R., Gutierrez, E., Hainfeld, J.F., and Furuya, F.R. (1998). Dual-labeled probes for fluorescence and electron microscopy. Proceedings Microscopy and Microanalysis, Bailey, G.W., Alexander, K.B., Jerome, W.G., Bond, M.G., and McCarthy, J.J., eds. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 992-993.
  78. Powell, R. D.; Halsey, C. M. R., and Hainfeld, J. F. Combined fluorescent and gold immunoprobes: reagents and methods for correlative light and electron microscopy. Microscopy Research and Technique, 42, 2 (1998).
  79. Zehbe, I., Hacker, G.W., Su, H., Hauser-Kronberger, C., Hainfeld, J.F., and Tubbs, R.: Sensitive in situ hybridization with catalyzed reporter deposition, streptavidin-Nanogold, and silver acetate autometallography. Detection of single-copy human papillomavirus. Am. J. Pathol. 150, 1553-1561 (1997).
  80. Hainfeld, J. F., and Powell, R. D.. Nanogold Technology: New frontiers in gold labeling. Cell Vision, 4, 408-432 (1997).
  81. Tracz, E., Dickson, D. W., Hainfeld, J. F., and Ksiezak-Reding, H. Paired helical filaments in corticobasal degeneration: the fine fibrillary structure with NanoVan. Brain Res., 773, 33-44 (1997).
  82. Powell, R. D., Halsey, Carol M. R., Spector, D. L., Kaurin, S. L., McCann, J., and Hainfeld, J. F. A covalent fluorescent-gold immunoprobe: "simultaneous" detection of a pre-mRNA splicing factor by light and electron microscopy. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 45, 947-956 (1997).
  83. Hainfeld, J. F., Gregori, L., Simon, M.N., and Goldgaber, D. (1997). Nanogold-labeled amyloid ? protein targets 20S proteasome. Proceedings Microscopy and Microanalysis, Bailey, G.W., Dimlich, R.V.W., Alexander, K.B., McCarthy, J.J., and Pretlow, T.P., eds. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 44-45.
  84. Gregori, L., Hainfeld, J. F., Simon, M. N., and Goldgaber, D. Binding of amyloid beta protein to the 20S proteasome. J. Biol. Chem., 272, 58-62 (1997).
  85. Hacker, G. W., Zehbe, I., Hainfeld, J., Graf, A.-H., Hauser-Kronberger, C., Schiechl, A., Su, H., and Dietze, O.: High performance Nanogold®-in situ hybridization and its use in the detection of hybridized and PCR-amplified microscopical preparations; In Proc 54th Ann. Mtg. Micros. Soc. Amer., G. W. Bailey, J. M. Corbett, R. V. W. Dimlich, J. R. Michael and N. J., Zaluzec (Eds.). San Francisco Press, San Francisco, CA, pp. 896-897 (1996).
  86. Hainfeld, J. F. Labeling with nanogold and undecagold: techniques and results. Scanning Microsc. Suppl., 10, 309-22; discussion 322-5.(1996).
  87. Hainfeld, J. F.: Gold Liposomes. In Proc 54th Ann. Mtg. Micros. Soc. Amer., G. W. Bailey, J. M. Corbett, R. V. W. Dimlich, J. R. Michael and N. J., Zaluzec (Eds.). San Francisco Press, San Francisco, CA, pp. 898-899 (1996).
  88. Hacker, G. W.; Zehbe, I.; Hainfeld, J.; Sällström, J.; Hauser-Kronberger, C.; Graf, A.-H.; Su, H.; Dietze, O., and Bagasra, O; High-Performance Nanogold® In Situ Hybridization and In Situ PCR. Cell Vision, 3, 209 (1996).
  89. Mosesson, M.W., Siebenlist, K.R., Hainfeld, J.F., Wall, J.F., Soria, J. Soria, C., and Caen, J.P. The relationship between the fibrinogen D domain self-association/cross-linking site (gXL) and the fibrinogen Dusart abnormality (Aa R554C-Albumin). Clues to thrombophilia in the "Dusart Syndrome". J. Clin. Invest. 97, 2343-2350 (1996).
  90. Mosesson, M.W., Siebenlist, K.R., DiOrio, J.P., Matsuda, M., Hainfeld, J.F., and Wall, J.S. The role of fibrinogen D domain intermolecular association sites in the polymerization of fibrin and fibrinogen Tokyo II (g 275 Arg-->Cys). J. Clin. Invest. 96, 1053-1058 (1995).
  91. Siebenlist, K.R., Meh, D.A., Wall, J.S., Hainfeld, J.F., and Mosesson, M.W. Orientation of the carboxy-terminal regions of fibrin chain dimers determined from the crosslinked products formed in mixtures of fibrin, fragment D, and Factor XIIIa. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 74, 1113-9 (1995).
  92. Mosesson, M.W., Siebenlist, K.R., Hainfeld, J.F., and Wall, J.S. The covalent structure of Factor XIIIa crosslinked fibrinogen fibrils. J. Struct. Biol. 115, 88-101 (1995).
  93. Hainfeld, J. F. (1995). Gold, electron microscopy, and cancer therapy. Scanning Micros. 9, 239-256.
  94. Hainfeld, J. F. Gold covalently bound to antibodies. J. Micros. Soc. Amer., 1, 87-92 (1995).
  95. Hainfeld, J., and Furuya, F. R. Silver enhancement of Nanogold and Undecagold. In: Immunogold-Silver Staining: Principles, Methods and Applications. M. A. Hayat, ed., pp. 72-91, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1995).
  96. Hainfeld, J. F. Colloidal gold and cancer therapy. Scanning Microscopy, 9, 239 (1995).
  97. Hainfeld, J. F., and Furuya, F. R. Aldehyde clusters for molecular labeling. Proc. 53rd Ann. Mtg. Micros. Soc. Amer.; Bailey, G. W.; Ellisman, M. H.; Hennigar, R. A., and Zaluzec, N. J. (eds.); Jones and Begell, New York, NY, p. 858 (1995).
  98. Joshi, VN; Lipka, J; Hainfeld, JF Synthesis, Characterization And Electron-Microscopy of Organotin Substituted Kiggin Phosphotungstate Abstracts of Papers of The American Chemical Society Volume: 207 Pages: 202-INOR Part: Part 1 Published: MAR 13 1994
  99. Yang, Y. S.; Datta, A.; Hainfeld, J. F.; Furuya, F. R.; Wall, J. S.,and Frey, P. A. Mapping the lipoyl groups of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by use of gold cluster labels and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Biochemistry, 33, 9428-37 (1994).
  100. Norcum, M.T., Wilkinson, D.A., Carlson, M.C., Hainfeld, J.F., and Carlson, G.M. Structure of phosphorylase kinase. J. Mol. Biol. 241, 94-102 (1994).
  101. Wilkinson, D.A., Marion, T.N., Tillman, D.M., Norcum, M.T., Hainfeld, J.F., Seyer, J.M., and Carlson, G.M. An epitope proximal to the carboxyl terminus of the a-subunit is located near the tips of the phosphorylase kinase hexadecamer. J. Mol. Biol. 235, 974-982 (1994).
  102. Mosesson, M.W., DiOrio, J.P., Siebenlist, K.R., Wall, J.S., and Hainfeld, J.F. Evidence for a second type of fibril branch point in fibrin polymer networks, the trimolecular junction. Blood, 82, 1517 (1993).
  103. Braig, K., Simon, M., Furuya, F., Hainfeld, J., and Horwich, A. L. A polypeptide bound by the chaperonin groEL is is localized within a central cavity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 90, 3978-3982 (1993).
  104. Blechschmidt, B., Jahn, W., Hainfeld, J. F., Sprinzl, M., and Boublik, M. Visualization of a ternary complex of the Escherichia coli Phe-tRNAPhe and Tu.GTP from Thermus thermophilus by scanning transmission electron microscopy. J. Struct. Biol., 110, 84-89 (1993).
  105. Hainfeld, J. F., Furuya, F. R., Carbone, K., Simon, M., Lin, B., Braig, K., Horwich, A. L., Safer, D., Blechsmidt, B., Sprinzl, M., Ofengand, J., and Boublik, M. High-resolution gold labeling. Proc. 51st Ann. Mtg. Micros. Soc. Amer.; G. W. Bailey, Bentley, J., and Small, J. A. (Eds.); San Francisco Press, San Francisco, CA, p. 330-331 (1993).
  106. Hainfeld, J. F. Uranium-loaded apoferritin with antibodies attached: Molecular design for uranium neutron capture therapy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 11064-11068 (1992).
  107. Steplewski, Z., Curtis, P., Hainfeld, J., Mausner, L., Mease, R., and Srivastava, S. Selection and manipulation if immunoglobulins for radionuclide delivery. Proc. of 2nd Anticancer Drud Discovery and Development Sympos. (June 27-29, 1991, Grand Traverse Resort, Lake Michigan), in press.
  108. Hainfeld, J. F. Site specific cluster labels. Ultramicroscopy, 46, 135-144 (1992).
  109. Sosinsky, G. E., Francis, N. R., DeRosier, D. J., Wall, J. S., Simon, M. N., and Hainfeld, J. F. Mass determination and estimation of subunit stoichiometry of the bacterial hook-basal body flagellar complex of Salmonella typhimurium by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89, 4801-4805 (1992).
  110. Hainfeld, J. F. Gold covalently attached to antibodies. In, Microscopy: The Key Research Tool, EMSA Press, (1992).
  111. Hainfeld, J. F., and Furuya, F. R. A 1.4-nm gold cluster covalently attached to antibodies improves immunolabeling. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 40, 177-184 (1992).
  112. Kolsky, K. L., Mausner, L. F., Hainfeld, J. F., Meinken, G. E., and Srivastava, S. C. Gold-199 production for use as a radiolabel of gold cluster immunoconjugates. J. Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals, 30, 211-213 (1991).
  113. Wall, J. S. and Hainfeld, J. F. Biological scanning transmission electron microscopy. EMSA Bulletin 21, 81-86 (1991).
  114. STEM micrograph of undecagold label by James F. Hainfeld on the cover of the Journal of Structural BiologyHainfeld, J. F., Sprinzl, M., Mandiyan, V., Tumminia, S. J., and Boublik, M. Localization of a specific nucleotide in yeast tRNA by scanning transmission electron microscopy using an undecagold cluster. J. Struct. Biol., 107, 1-5 (1991) (Cover image).
  115. Cover: Scanning transmission electron micrograph of a yeast tRNA(phe) molecule (green) labeled with an undecagold cluster (yellow spot). 2-Thiocytidine was enzymatically introduced into the tRNA at position 75 for linking to a maleimide-eleven gold atom cluster. The image was low-pass-filtered and colored according to intensity.

  116. Thomas, D. J., Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., Kaczorek, M., Booy, F. P., Trus, B. L., Eiserling, F. A., and Steven, A. C. gp160, the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, is a dimer of 125-kilodalton subunits stabilized through interactions between their gp41 domains. J. Virol., 65, 3797-3803 (1991).
  117. Watts, N. R. M., Hainfeld, J., and Coombs, D. H. Localization of the proteins gp7, gp8, and gplO in the bacteriophage T4 baseplate with colloidal gold F(ab')2 and undecagold Fab' conjugates. J. Mol. Biol., 216, 315-325 (1990).
  118. Mandiyan, V., Tumminia, S., Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., Boublik, M. Protein-induced conformational changes in 16S rRNA during the initial assembly steps of the Escherichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit. J. Mol. Biol. 210, 323-336 (1990).
  119. Mandiyan, V., Tumminia, S., Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., and Boublik, M. Visualization of ion-dependent conformational changes in E. coli 23S ribosomal RNA by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 276, 299-304 (1990).
  120. Hainfeld, J. F., Lipka, J. J., and Quaite, F. E. A high-resolution tungstate membrane label. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 38, 1793-1803 (1990).
  121. Hainfeld, J. F., Foley, C. J., Maelia, L. E., and Lipka, J. J. Eleven tungsten atom cluster labels: High-resolution, site-specific probes for electron microscopy. J. Histochem. Cytochem., 38, 1787-1793 (1990).
  122. Mosesson, M. W., Fass, D. N, Lollar, P., DiOrio, J. P., Knutson, G. J., Hainfeld, J. F., and Wall, J. S. Structural model of porcine factors VIII and VIIIa based on scannlng transmission electron microscope (STEM) images and STEM mass analysis. J. Clin. .Invest. 85, 1983-1990 (1990).
  123. Mosesson, M. W., Church, W. R., DiOrio, J. P., Krishnaswamy, S., Mann, K. G., Hainfeld, J. F., and Wall, J. S. Structural model of factors V and Va based on scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) images and STEM mass analysis. J. Biol. Chem. 265, 8863-8868 (1990).
  124. Hainfeld, J. F., Foley, C. F., Srivastava, S. C., Mausner, L. F., Feng, N. I., Meinken, G. E., and Steplewski, Z. Radioactive gold cluster immunoconjugates: Potential agents for cancer therapy. Nucl. Med. Biol., 17, 287-294 (1990).
  125. Hackert, M. L., Xu, W. -X., Oliver, R. M., Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., Mullinax, T. R., and Reed, L. J. Branched-chain a keto acid dehydrogenase complex from bovine kidney: Radial distribution of mass determined from dark-field electron micrographs. Biochemistry 28, 6816-6821 (1989).
  126. Mandiyan, V., Tumminia, S., Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., and Boublik, M. Protein-induced conformational changes in 16S ribosomal RNA during the initial assembly steps of the Eschcrichia coli 30S ribosomal subunit. J. Mol. Biol. 210,. 323-336 (1989).
  127. Hainfeld, J. F. Undecagold-antibody method. In: Colloidal Gold: Principles, Methods and Applications. M. A. Hayat, ed., Vol. 2, pp. 413-429, Academic Press, San Diego, CA (1989).
  128. Hainfeld, J. F., Wall, J. S., and Wang, K. Titan: quantitative mass measurements by scanning transmission electron microscopy and structural implications for the sarcomere matrix of skeletal muscle. FEBS Lett. 234, 145-148 (1988).
  129. Mandiyan, V., Hainfeld, J. F., Wall, J. S., and Boublik, M. Conformational analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA from Eschcrichia coli by scanning transmission electron microscopy. FEBS Lett. 236, 340-344 (1988).
  130. Steer, C. J., Bisher, E., Trus, B. L., Hainfeld, J. F., Wall, J. S., and Steven, A. C. Membrane contents of distinct subpopulations of coated vesicles determined by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Biochemica et Biophysica Acta 938, 167-180 (1988).
  131. Steven, A. C., Trus, B. L., Maizel, J. V., Unser, M., Parry, D. A. D., Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., and Studier, F. W. The molecular substructure of a viral receptor-recognition protein - the gpl7 tail-fiber of bacteriophage T7. J. Mol. Biol. 200, 351-365 (1988).
  132. Hainfeld, J. F. Gold cluster-labelled antibodies. Nature, 333, 281-282 (1988).
  133. Boublik, M., Oostergetel, G. T., Mandiyan, V., Halnfeld, J. F., and Wall, J. S. Structural analysis of ribosomes by scannlng transmisslon electron microscopy. Methods in Enzymol. 164, 49-63 (1988).
  134. Hainfeld, J. F. and Wall, J. S. High resolution electron microscopy for structure and mapping. In: Biotechnology and the Human Genome: Innovations and Impact, A. D. Woodhead and B. J. Barnhart, eds , Basic Life Sciences, Vol 46, pp 131-147, Plenum Press, New York (1988).
  135. Furuya, F. R., Miller, L. L., Hainfeld, J. F., Christopfel, W. C., and Kenny, P. W. Use of Ir4(CO)11 to measure the lengths of organic molecules with a scanning transmission electron microscope. J. Amer. Chem. Soc., 110, 641-643 (1988).
  136. Electron micrograph of Nanogold label by James F. Hainfeld on the cover of Science magazineHainfeld, J. F. A small gold-conjugated antibody label: Improved resolution for electron microscopy. Science, 236, 450-453 (1987). (Cover image)
  137. Cover: The smallest gold-conjugated antibody label yet developed is demostrated in this pseudocolored electron micrograph. Anti-ferritin Fab' antibody fragments are covalently linked to 11 gold atom clusters (yellow spots, discerned by high pass filtration) and attached to ferritin, which consists of a protein shell surrounding an iron core (red).

  138. Hough, P. V. C., Mastrangelo, I. A., Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., Sawadogo, M., and Roeder, R. G. The gene-specific initiation factor USF (upstream stimulatory factor) bound at the adenovirus type 2 major late promoter: Mass and three-dimensional structure. Proc. Natl. Acad Sci USA 84, 4826-4830 (1987).
  139. Ultramicroscopy CoverMonson, K. L., Wall, J. S., and Hainfeld, J. F. Visiblility and stability of a 12-tungsten atom complex in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Ultramicroscopy, 21, 147-156 (1987). (Cover image)
  140. Hainfeld, J. F. and Wall, J. S. Mapping the domains of molecules and complexes by mass and heavy atom loading. In: Recent advances in Electron and Light Optical Imaging in Biology and Medicine, A. P. Somlyo, ed., Vol. 483, pp. 181-187. New York Academy of Sciences, New York (1986).
  141. Mosesson, M. W., Siebenlist, K. R., DiOrio, J. P., Hainfeld, J. F., Wall, J. S., Soria, J., Soria, C., and Samama, M. Evidence that proximal NH2-terminal portions of fibrinogen Metz (Aa 16 Arg - Cys)Aa chains are oriented in the same direction. In: Fibrinogen and Its Derivatives, G. Muller-Burghaus et al., eds., Elsevier Science Publishers, B.V., pp. 3-15 (1986).
  142. Wall, J. S. and Hainfeld, J. F. Mass mapping with the scanning transission electron microscope. Ann. Rev. Biophys. Biophys. Chem., 15, 355-376 (1986) .
  143. Mastrangelo, I.A., Hough, P.V.C., Wilson, V.G., Wall, J.S., Hainfeld, J.F., and Tegtmeyer, P. Monomers through trimers of large tumor antigen bind in region I and monomers through tetramers bind in region II of simian virus 40 origin of replication DNA as stable structures in solution. PNAS 82, 3626-3630 (1985).
  144. Lipka, J.J., Hainfeld, J.F. and Wall, J.S. Undecagold labeling of a glycoprotein: STEM Visualization of an undecagold phosphine cluster labeling the carbohydrate sites of human haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex. J. Ultrastruct. Res., 84, 120 (1983) .
  145. Wall, J., Hainfeld, J.F., Haschemeyer, R.H., and Mosesson, M.W. Analysis of human fibrinogen by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 408, 164-179 (1983).
  146. Tooney, N.M., Mosesson, M.W., Amrani, D. L., Hainfeld, J.F., and Wall, J.S. Solution and surface effects on plasma fibronectin structure. J. Cell Biol. 97, 1686-1692 (1983).
  147. Hough, P.V.C., Mastrangelo, I.A., Wall, J., Hainfeld, J.F., Simon, M.M., and Manley, J.L. DNA-protein complexes spread on N2-discharged carbon film and characterized by molecular weight and its projected distribution. J. Mol. Biol. 160, 375-386 (1982).
  148. Safer, D., Hainfeld, J. F., Wall, J. S., and Riordan, J. Biospecific labeling with undecagold: Visualization of the biotin binding sites on avidin. Science, 218, 290-291 (1982).
  149. Wall, J. S., Hainfeld, J. F., Bartlett, P. A., and Singer, S. J. Observation of an undecagold cluster compound in the scanning transmission electron microscope. Ultramicroscopy, 8, 397-402 (1982).
  150. Mosesson, M.W., Hainfeld, J., Haschemeyer, R.H., and Wall, J.S. Identification and mass analysis of human fibrinogen molecules and their domains by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). J. Mol. Biol. 153, 695-718 (1981).
  151. Hainfeld, J. and Wall, J. Atom motion observed at TV scan rates. In: Scanning Electron Microscopy 1980, Vol. 1, 0. Johari, ed., pp. 107-112 (1980).
  152. Hainfeld, J. and Isaacson, M. The use of enery loss spectroscopy for studying membrane architecture. A preliminary report. Ultramicroscopy 3, 87-95 (1978).
  153. Hainfeld, J. F. and Steck, T. L. The sub-membrane reticulum of the human erythrocyte: A scanning electron microscope study. J. Supramolecular Structure 6, 301-311 (1977).
  154. Steck, T.L. and Hainfeld, J. F. Protein ensembles in the human red cell membrane. In International Cell Biology 1976-1977, B.R. Brinkley and K.R. Porter (eds.), The Rockefeller University Press, New York, pp. 6-14 (1977).
  155. Hainfeld, J. Structural studies of two components of the a-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by solution scattering and crystal diffraction. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, January, 1974.

 

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